People at ILR

Tove Hammer
people / faculty

Tove Hammer

Professor Emeritus
Organizational Behavior


Tove Helland Hammer is Professor of Organizational Behavior at the ILR School, Cornell University. She received her BA in Psychology from Cornell University, and her MA and Ph.D. in Industrial/Organizational Psychology from the University of Maryland. After joining the Cornell faculty in 1974, her research moved from a focus on leadership and management to a long-term project on the performance effects of employee stock ownership, worker buy-outs, and forms of labor-management collaboration, including employee representation on corporate boards of directors. Her current research includes large-scale field studies on the health effects of the physical and psycho-social work environment.
Tove Hammer has served on the editorial boards of Administrative Science Quarterly, Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of Vocational Behavior, and Groups and Organization Studies, and as an associate editor of the Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology. She was the senior editor of the Industrial and Labor Relations Review (now ILRREVIEW) from 1994 to 2011.She has held Professor II positions in the Department of Psychology at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), and in the School of Hotel Management at the University in Stavanger (UiS), Norway. She is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association and the American Psychological Society

Teaching Statement

Her primary teaching area is leadership and work motivation with courses offered at both undergraduate and graduate levels. She also teaches general micro-organizational behavior courses for professional graduate students.

Research Statement

Her primary research examines the effects of the physical and psychosocial work environment on employees' mental and physical health. She conducts field studies with a special focus on how organizational level norms about work performance, social support, and reward systems influence the degree of work-family conflict, workplace bullying and harassment, job stress, and psychological and physical health.


Journal Articles

  • Sarah Harvey, Steven C. Currall, Tove Hammer. . Decision diversion in diverse teams: Findings from inside a corporate boardroom, Academy of Management Discoveries . 3 (2017)(4):358-381.
  • Per O Saksvik, Tove Hammer, Kjell Nytroe. 2013. Social relations at the collective level: The measurement of collective control in research on the psychosocial work environment, Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies . 3(3):1-16.
  • Shinoshiro Watanabe, Tove Hammer. 2009. On a psychological trip from latent self to manifest self: A study on multiple selves in a single situation , Japanese Journal of Adminstrative Sciences . 22(2):103-115.
  • Tove Hammer, Mahmut Bayazit, David L Wazeter. 2009. Union leadership and member attitudes: A multi-level analysis, Journal of Applied Psychology . 94(2):392-410.
  • Tove Hammer, A Avgar. 2005. The impact of unions on job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover, Journal of Labor Research . 26(2):241-266.
  • Tove Hammer, P O Saksvik, K Nytrø, H Torvatn, M Bayazit. 2004. Expanding the psychosocial work environment: Workplace norms and work-family conflict as correlates of stress and health, Journal of Occupational Health Psychology . 9:83-97.
  • M Bayazit, Tove Hammer, D Wazeter. 2004. Methodological challenges in union commitment studies, Journal of Applied Psychology . 89:738-747.
  • S C Currall, Tove Hammer, L S Baggett, G Doniger. 1999. Combining qualitative and quantitative methodologies to study group processes: An illustrative study of a corporate board of directors, Organizational Research Methods . 2:5-36.
  • Tove Hammer. 1995. Leadership effectiveness of local union leaders, Work Place Topics . 4(2).
  • Tove Hammer, D L Wazeter. 1993. Dimensions of local union effectiveness, Industrial and Labor Relations Review . 46:302-319.
  • Tove Hammer. 1991. Worker participation on boards of directors, Work Place Topics . 2(1).
  • Tove Hammer, S C Currall, R N Stern. 1991. Worker representation on boards of directors: A study of competing roles, Industrial and Labor Relations Review . 44:661-680.
  • M E Gordon, Tove Hammer. 1988. Overview of Industrial/Organizational Psychology, Work Place Topics . 1(1).
  • Tove Hammer, J M Turk. 1987. Organizational determinants of leader behavior and authority, Journal of Applied Psychology . 72:674-682.
  • J Landau, Tove Hammer. 1986. Clerical employees: Perceptions of career opportunities, Academy of Management Journal . 29:385-404.
  • Tove Hammer, R N Stern. 1986. The Yo-Yo model of union-management cooperation: Union participation in management at the Rath Packing Company, Industrial and Labor Relations Review . 39:337-349.
  • Tove Hammer, J Landau, R N Stern. 1981. Absenteeism when workers have a voice: The case of employee ownership, Journal of Applied Psychology . 66:561-573.
  • Tove Hammer, J Landau. 1981. Methodological issues in the use of absence data, Journal of Applied Psychology . 66:574-581.
  • Tove Hammer, M Berman. 1981. The role of non-economic factors in faculty union voting, Journal of Applied Psychology . 66:415-421.
  • Tove Hammer, R N Stern. 1980. Employee ownership: Implications for the organizational distribution of power, Academy of Management Journal . 23:78-100.
  • Tove Hammer, Y Vardi. 1980. Locus of control and career self-management among non-supervisory employees in industrial settings, Journal of Vocational Behavior . 15:1-17.
  • Tove Hammer. 1979. Affirmative Action programs: Have we forgotten the first-line supervisor?, Personnel Journal . 58:384-389.
  • Tove Hammer, R N Stern. 1978. Buying your job: Factors affecting the success or failure of employee acquisition attempts, Human Relations . 31:1101-1117.
  • R A Snyder, A Howard, Tove Hammer. 1978. Mid-career change in academia: The decision to become an administrator, Journal of Vocational Behavior . 12:229-241.
  • Tove Hammer. 1978. Relationships between local union characteristics and worker behavior and attitudes, Academy of Management Journal . 21:560-577.
  • R A Snyder, A Howard, Tove Hammer. 1978. The predictive power of within-versus across-subjects scores in expectancy research, Journal of Psychology . 100:285-292.
  • R A Snyder, Tove Hammer. 1977. A note on the generality of managers' perceptions of union members, Journal of Social Psychology . 103:323-324.
  • Y Vardi, Tove Hammer. 1977. Intra-organizational mobility and career perceptions among rank and file employees in different technologies, Academy of Management Journal . 20:622-634.
  • Tove Hammer, H P Dachler. 1975. A test of some assumptions underlying the path-goal model of supervision: Some suggested conceptual modifications, Organizational Behavior and Human Performance . 14:60-75.


  • William F Whyte, Tove Hammer, Christopher B Meek, Reed Nelson, Robert N Stern. 1983. Workers' Participation and Ownership: Cooperative Strategies for Strengthening Local Economies. Ithaca NY, United States: ILR Press, 1983.
  • R N Stern, H Wood, Tove Hammer. 1979. Employee Ownership in Plant Shutdowns: Prospects for Employment Stability. Kalamazoo MI, United States: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 1979.
  • Tove Hammer. 1977. Rewards Systems and Power Distributions: Searching for Solutions. Ithaca NY, United States: Cornell University ILR School, 1977. Tove Hammer, Samuel Bacharach.

Book Chapters

  • Tove Hammer. 2011. Fairness in the Workplace. in Work and Organizational Psychology: Topics for A Better Work Life. Oslo, Norway: Cappelen Academic Publisher, 2011. P.O. Saksvik and K. Nytro. (pp.335-358)
  • Tove Hammer. 2009. The role of norms in organizational change efforts. in Prerequsites for Health Organizational Change. Bentham Science Publishers, 2009. Per Oystein Saksvik. (52-61)
  • Tove Hammer. 2000. Nonunion representational forms: An organizational behavior perspective. in Nonunion Employee Representation: History, Contemporary Practice, and Policy. Armonk NY, United States: M. E. Sharpe, Inc., 2000. B E Kaufman, D Taras.
  • Tove Hammer. 1999. Developing global leaders: A European perspective. in Advances in Global Leadership. Greenwich CT, United States: JAI Press, 1999. W H Mobley, M J Gessner, V Arnold.
  • Tove Hammer, K Nytrø, P O Saksvik. 1998. Hva er arbeidsmiljø? En gjennomgang av begrepet (What is the work environment? A conceptual analysis). in Mot et Bedre Arbeidsliv (Towards a Better Working Life). Bergen, Norway: Fagbokforlaget, 1998. Tore Nilssen.
  • Tove Hammer, J Hartley. 1997. Individual-union-organization relationships in a cultural context. in New Perspectives on International Industrial/Organizational Psychology. San Francisco CA, United States: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1997. P Christopher Earley, Miriam Erez.
  • Tove Hammer. 1988. New developments in profit sharing, gainsharing, and employee ownership. in Productivity in Organizations. San Francisco CA, United States: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1988. John Paul Campbell, Richard J Campbell.
  • Tove Hammer, R N Stern, M A Gurdon. 1983. Worker ownership and attitudes towards participation. in Workplace Democracy and Social Change. Boston MA, United States: Porter Sargent Publishers, 1983. Frank Lindenfeld, Joyce Rothschild-Whitt.
  • J M Brett, Tove Hammer. 1982. Organizational behavior and industrial relations. in Industrial Relations Research in the 1970s: Review and Appraisal. Madison WI, United States: Industrial Relations Research Association, 1982. Thomas A Kochan, Daniel J B Mitchell, Lee Dyer.

Book Sections

  • Tove Hammer. 1996. Industrial democracy. in International Encyclopedia of Business and Management. London, United Kingdom: Routledge, 1996. M Warner. (1921-1930)

Conference Proceedings

  • Tove Hammer, . 2012. A license to misbehave? Organizational harassment norms and employee well-being . Academy of Manaegment , 2012.
  • Tove Hammer, Mahmut Bayazit, Per O Saksvik. 2011. A multi-level empirical expansion of Siegrist's effort-reward imbalance model of job stress and health. Academy of Management , 2011. (Accepted)
  • Tove Hammer. 1985. The history of the Rath buyout: A role expectations analysis. in Industrial Relations Research Association Proceedings. 1985. (205-213)

Selected Works

Selected Works is a service of BePress Publishing that helps readers follow a scholar's most current work. View Selected Works of Tove Hammer

Professional Activities

  • A license to misbehave? Organizational harassment norms and employee well-being. Presented to Academy of Management. Boston, MA. 2012.
  • A multi-level empirical expansions of Siegrist’s effort-reward imbalance model of job stress and health. Presented to Academy of Management. San Antonio, Texas. 2011.

Honors and Awards

  • Member, The Royal Norwegian Society of Sciencies and Letters.
  • Fellow, American Psychological Society.
  • Fellow, Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology.
  • Fellow, American Psychological Association.