The Smithers Institute has published a number of books and articles about Employee Assistance Programs and Member Assistance Programs. These publications are based upon field studies and survey research conducted by the Smithers Institute.


Mutual Aid And Union Renewal: Cycles Of Logics Of Action

Samuel B. Bacharach; Peter A. Bamberger; William J. Sonnenstuhl

Since the seventies, union membership has declined drastically. This book examines the mutual aid ethic and its original role in developing a strong labor movement in the United States. Drawing on data from three unions in the transportation industry, this book explores the role of labor-based Member Assistance Programs in regenerating each union's mutual aid logic and strengthening their members' commitment to the union.

Member Assistance Programs In The Workplace: The Role of Labor in the Prevention and Treatment of Substance Abuse

Samuel B. Bacharach; Peter A. Bamberger; William J. Sonnenstuhl

Union-based Member Assistance Programs have a critical role to play in the prevention and treatment of alcohol and other drug problems. This book examines union-based Member Assistance Programs in the railroad and airline industries and generates guidelines for implementing effective programs

Inside An Emotional Health Program: Field Study of Workplace Assistance for Troubled Employees

William J. Sonnenstuhl

Why do employees use their employers' Employee Assistance Program? Drawing on in-depth interviews with employees, observations, and case records, this book documents how those employees decide to voluntarily seek help from their employer's in-house program and what happened when they did ask for help. The author explores both the darker and brighter consequences of seeking emotional help from one's employer. On the brighter side, employees are helped to live better lives on and off the job. On the darker side, practitioners who are not trained in the dynamics of alcoholism and its treatment are likely to misdiagnose employees drinking problems.

Working Sober: The Transformation of an Occupational Drinking Culture

William J. Sonnenstuhl

In many work organizations, drinking with one's peers - often on and off the job - remains a powerful ritual for reinforcing occupational beliefs, values, and norms. This book examines the drinking culture of the Sandhogs, a group of tunnel workers in New York City, and their efforts to transform it into a culture of sobriety. The book highlights the important role played by workplace drinking norms in both the development and prevention of alcohol problems.

Strategies For Employee Assistance Programs: The Crucial Balance - Revised Edition

William J. Sonnenstuhl; Harrison M. Trice

Although written a decade ago, Strategies for Employee Assistance Programs is even more relevant today. Employee Assistance Programs are not a new phenomenon in the American workplace, which has long been recognized as an effective arena for combating alcohol and other drug problems. This book reviews the research on EAP efficacy and finds that programs have become dangerously unbalanced. Instead of rushing employees into treatment, the authors argue that effective programs balance the dynamics of the workplace - a focus on job performance and progressive discipline - and treatment and provide readers with guidelines for implementing balanced programs.


Peter Bamberger and Samuel Bacharach. Predicting Retirement Upon Eligibility: An Embeddedness Perspective (PDF, 180 KB). Human Resources Management.

Bamberger, P.A. (2012). Israeli Commercial Drivers and Alcohol Misuse: Impact, Prevalence, and Risk Factors (PDF, 951 KB)

Nahum-Shani, I., Bamberger, P.A., Bacharach, S.B. (2011). Social support and employee well-being: The conditioning effect of perceived patterns of supportive exchange. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 52, 1: 123-139.

Biron, M., Bamberger, P.A., Noyman, T. (2011). Work-related risk factors and employee substance use: Insights from a sample of Israeli blue-collar workers. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 16, 2, 247-263.

Bacharach, S., Bamberger, P. & Biron, M. (2010). Alcohol consumption and workplace absenteeism: The moderating effect of social support. Journal of Applied Psychology. 95, 3, 334-348.

Nahum-Shani, I. & Bamberger, P. (2009). Work Hours, Retirement and Supportive Relations among Older Adults. Journal of Organizational Behavior. J Organ Behav. 1,1-25.

Bacharach, S., Bamberger, P., Biron, M. & Horowitz-Rozen, M. (2008). Perceived agency in retirement on retiree drinking behavior: The moderating effects of pre-retirement of job satisfaction. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 7 3, 376-386.

Bacharach, S., Bamberger, P., Sonnenstuhl, W. & Vashdi, D. (2008). Retirement and drug abuse: The conditioning role of age and retirement trajectory. Addictive Behaviors, 33, 1610-1614. PMID 18771858.

Bacharach, S., Bamberger, P., Vashdi, D. & Sonnenstuhl, W. (2008). Aging and drinking problems among mature adults: The moderating effects of positive alcohol expectancies and workforce disengagement. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 69,1, 151-159, 2008. PMID 18080075

Bacharach, S. Bamberger, P., Doveh, E. (2008). Firefighters, critical incidents, and drinking to cope: The adequacy of unit-level performance resources as a source of vulnerability and protection. Journal of Applied Psychology. Vol 93(1), Jan 2008, 155-169

Bacharach, S., Bamberger, P., Cohen, A. & Doveh, E. (2007). Retirement, social support and drinking behavior: A cohort analysis of males with a baseline history of problem drinking. Journal of Drug Issues, 37, 3.

Samuel B. Bacharach, Peter A. Bamberger, and Valerie McKinney (2007) "Harassing Under the Influence: The Prevalence of Male Heavy Drinking, the Embeddedness of Permissive Workplace Drinking Norms, and the Gender Harassment of Female Coworkers" Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 12: 232–250.

Samuel B. Bacharach, Peter A. Bamberger, and E Doveh & Hilary Zelko "Firefighters, Critical Incidents and Drinking Behavior: The Adequacy of Unit-level Performance Resources as a Source of Vulnerability and Protection" Journal of Applied Psychology, 2007.

Samuel B. Bacharach and Peter A. Bamberger "9-11 and NYC Firefighters' Post-hoc Unit Support and Control Climates: A Context Theory of the Consequences of Involvement in Traumatic Work-related Events" Academy of Management Journal, 2007.

Samuel B. Bacharach and Peter A. Bamberger. "Abusive supervision and subordinate problem drinking: Resistance, distress and the moderating effect of personality" Human Relations, 59, 723-752, 2006.

Samuel B. Bacharach, Peter A. Bamberger, William Sonnenstuhl, and Dana Vashdi. "Diversity and homophily at work: Supportive relations among white and African-American Peers" Academy of Management Journal, 48, 4, 619-644, 2005.

Samuel B. Bacharach, Peter A. Bamberger and Dana Vashdi. "Retirement, risky alcohol consumption and drinking problems among blue-collar workers" Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 65, 4, 537-545, 2004.

Samuel B. Bacharach and Peter A. Bamberger. "The power of labor to grieve: The impact of the workplace, labor market and power-dependence on employee grievance filing" Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 57, 518-539, 2004.

Samuel B. Bacharach and Peter A. Bamberger. "Diversity and the union: The effect of demographic dissimilarity on members' union attachment " Group and Organization Management, 29, 385-418,2002.

Samuel B. Bacharach, Peter A. Bamberger, and William J. Sonnenstuhl (2002) "Driven to drink: managerial control, work-related risk factors, and employee problem drinking" Academy of Management Journal 45(4): 637-658.

Samuel B. Bacharach, Peter A. Bamberger, and Valerie McKinney (2000) "Boundary management tactics and logics of action: the case of peer-support providers." Administrative Science Quarterly 45: 704-736.

Peter A. Bamberger and Linda H. Donahue (1999) "Employee discharge and reinstatement: Moral hazards and the mixed consequences of last chance agreements" Industrial and Labor Relations Review 53: 3-20.

Samuel B. Bacharach, Peter A. Bamberger, and William J. Sonnenstuhl (1996) "The organizational transformation process: Micro-politics of dissonance reduction and the alignment of logics of action" Administrative Science Quarterly 40(3): 487-506.

Samuel B. Bacharach, Peter A. Bamberger, and William J. Sonnenstuhl (1996) "Member assistance programs: An emergent phenomenon in industrial relations" Industrial Relations 35(2): 261-275.

Peter A. Bamberger and William J. Sonnenstuhl (1996) "Tailoring union-wide innovations to local conditions: The implementation of member assistance programs in the airline industry" Labor Studies 21(3): 19-39.

Peter A. Bamberger and William J. Sonnenstuhl (1995) "Peer referral networks and utilization of a union-based EAP" Journal of Drug Issues 25(2): 291-312.

William J. Sonnenstuhl (1990) "Help-seeking and helping processes within the workplace: Assisting alcoholic and other troubled employees." In P. M. Roman (ed.), Alcohol Problem Intervention in the Workplace: Employee Assistance Programs and Strategic Alternatives. Quorum Press: Greenwich, Conn.

Harrison M. Trice and William J. Sonnenstuhl (1990) "On the construction of drinking norms in work organizations" Journal of Studies on Alcohol 51(3): 201-220.