The Smithers Institute has published a number of books and articles focusing on alcohol use, abuse, and treatment in the workplace. This bibiliography is arranged by content area, with most recent publications appearing first. With the exception of books, links route to full-text articles or abstracts.



P. Bamberger & S. Bacharach. Retirement & the Hidden Epidemic: The Complex Link Between Aging, Work Disengagement and Substance Misuse…and What to Do About It. New York: Oxford University Press. 2014.


This volume is based on findings from a 10-year, NIH-funded study of retirement, aging, and substance misuse. The authors examine the complex web of factors contributing to the precipitation and exacerbation of substance problems among older adults. Also discussed are the individual and public health implications of such problems, as well as some evidence-based steps that may be taken to prevent their emergence and help those in need of assistance for policy-makers, health practitioners, and human resource professionals.


I. Nahum-Shani & P. Bamberger. The lingering effects of work context: Ambient work-unit characteristics and the impact of retirement on alcohol consumption. Human Relations, 72(4): 675-705, 2019.


D. Segel-Karpas, P. Bamberger & S. Bacharach. The prevalence and distribution of aging-friendly human resource practices. International Journal of Aging, 81 (1-2), 120-148, 2015.


D. Segel-Karpas, P. Bamberger & S. Bacharach. Income decline and retiree well-being: The moderating role of attachment. Psychology and Aging, 28(4):1098-107, 2013. PMID: 24364411


P. Bamberger & S. Bacharach. Predicting retirement upon eligibility: An embeddedness perspective. Human Resource Management, 53(1), 1-22. 2013.


E. Belogologsky, P. Bamberger & S. Bacharach. Workforce disengagement stressors and retiree alcohol misuse: The mediating effects of sleep problems and the moderating effects of gender. Human Relations, 65: 705-728, June 2012.

I. Nahum-Shani &  P. Bamberger. Explaining the variable effects of social support on work-based stressor-strain relations: The role of perceived pattern of support exchange. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 114(1):49-63, Jan 2011. PMID: 2115211.

I. Nahum-Shani, P. Bamberger & S. Bacharach. Social support and employee well-being: the conditioning effect of perceived patterns of supportive exchange. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 52(1): 123-39, Mar 2011. PMID: 21362616

I. Nahum-Shani & P. Bamberger. Work hours, retirement and supportive relations among older adults. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30(1):1-25, 2009.

S. Bacharach, P. Bamberger, M. Biron & M. Horowitz-Rozen. Perceived agency in retirement on retiree drinking behavior: The moderating effects of pre- retirement of job satisfaction. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 73,3, 376-386, Dec 2008. PMID: 19956364.


S. Bacharach, P. Bamberger, W. Sonnenstuhl & D. Vashdi. Retirement and drug abuse: The conditioning role of age and retirement trajectory. Addictive Behaviors, 33, 1610-1614, Dec 2008. PMID 18771858.


S. Bacharach, P. Bamberger, W. Sonnenstuhl & D. Vashdi. Aging and drinking problems among mature adults: The moderating effects of positive alcohol expectancies and workforce disengagement. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 69,1, 151-159, 2008. PMID: 18080075


S. Bacharach, P. Bamberger, A. Cohen & E. Doveh. Retirement, social support and drinking behavior: A cohort analysis of males with a baseline history of problem drinking. Journal of Drug Issues, 37, 3, 2007.

P. Bamberger, W. Sonnenstuhl, & D. Vashdi. Screening older, blue-collar workers for drinking problems: An assessment of the efficacy of the drinking problems index. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 11(1): 119-34, 2006. PMID 16551179.  

S. Bacharach, P. Bamberger, W. Sonnenstuhl & D. Vashdi. Retirement, risky alcohol consumption and drinking problems among blue-collar workers. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 65, 4, 537-545, 2004.





A. Froidevaux, J. Koopmann, M. Wang, & P. Bamberger. Is student loan debt good or bad for employment upon graduation from college? Journal of Applied Psychology. 105(11), 1246–1261, 2020.


P. Bamberger, J. Koopman, M. Wang, I. Nahum Shani, M. Larimer, I. Markman Geisner & S. Bacharach. Does college alcohol consumption impact employment upon graduation? Findings from a prospective study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 103(1), 111-121. 2018.


I.M. Geisner, J. Koopmann, P. Bamberger, M. Wang, M.E. Larimer, I. Nahum-Shani, S. Bacharach. When the party continues: Impulsivity and the effect of employment on young adults' post-college alcohol use. Addictive Behaviors. 77: 114-120, 2017. PMID 28992576 



S. Liu, P. Bamberger, M. Wang, J. Shi & S. Bacharach. When onboarding becomes risky: Extending social learning theory. Human Relations, 73(5), 2019.

S. Liu, M. Wang, P. Bamberger, J. Shi, & S. Bacharach. The dark side of socialization: A longitudinal investigation of newcomer alcohol use. Academy of Management Journal. 58, 2, 334-355. 2015.




S. Bacharach, P. Bamberger, & W. Sonnenstuhl. Mutual Aid in Union Renewal: Cycles of Logics of Action. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2001.

Since the seventies, union membership has declined drastically. This book examines the mutual aid ethic and its original role in developing a strong labor movement in the United States. Drawing on data from three unions in the transportation industry, this book explores the role of labor-based Member Assistance Programs in regenerating each union's mutual aid logic and strengthening their members' commitment to the union.


S. Bacharach, P. Bamberger, & W. Sonnenstuhl. Member Assistance Programs: Labor's Role in the Prevention and Treatment of Substance Abuse. Ithaca, NY: ILR Press, 1994.


Union-based Member Assistance Programs have a critical role to play in the prevention and treatment of alcohol and other drug problems. This book examines union-based Member Assistance Programs in the railroad and airline industries and generates guidelines for implementing effective programs.


W. J. Sonnenstuhl. Inside an Emotional Health Program: Field Study of Workplace Assistance for Troubled Employees. Ithaca, NY: ILR Press, 1986. Preview.

Why do employees use their employers' Employee Assistance Program? Drawing on in-depth interviews with employees, observations, and case records, this book documents how employees decide to voluntarily seek help from their employer's in-house program and what happened when they did ask for help. The author explores both the darker and brighter consequences of seeking emotional help from one's employer. On the brighter side, employees are helped to live better lives on and off the job. On the darker side, practitioners who are not trained in the dynamics of alcoholism and its treatment are likely to misdiagnose employee drinking problems.

W. J. Sonnenstuhl. Working Sober: The Transformation of an Occupational Drinking Culture.  Ithaca, NY: ILR Press, 1996.

In many work organizations, drinking with one's peers - often on and off the job - remains a powerful ritual for reinforcing occupational beliefs, values, and norms. This book examines the drinking culture of the Sandhogs, a group of tunnel workers in New York City, and their efforts to transform it into a culture of sobriety. The book highlights the important role played by workplace drinking norms in both the development and prevention of alcohol problems.

W. J. Sonnenstuhl; H. M. Trice. Strategies for Employee Assistance Programs: The Crucial Balance (Key Issues). Ithaca, NY: ILR Press, 1990.

Strategies for Employee Assistance Programs remains relevant today. Employee Assistance Programs are not a new phenomenon in the American workplace, which has long been recognized as an effective arena for combating alcohol and other drug problems. This book reviews the research on EAP efficacy and finds that programs have become dangerously unbalanced. Instead of rushing employees into treatment, the authors argue that effective programs balance the dynamics of the workplace - a focus on job performance and progressive discipline - and treatment and provide readers with guidelines for implementing balanced programs.


S. Bacharach, P. A. Bamberger, & W. J. Sonnenstuhl. Member assistance programs: Labor-based peer assistance in the workplace. Industrial Relations, 35(2): 261-275, 1996.


P. A. Bamberger & W. J. Sonnenstuhl. Tailoring union-wide innovations to local conditions: The implementation of member assistance programs in the airline industry. Labor Studies Journal, 21(3): 19-39, 1996.

P. A. Bamberger & W. J. Sonnenstuhl. Peer referral networks and utilization of a union-based EAP. Journal of Drug Issues, 25(2): 291-312, 1995.

H. M. Trice & W. J. Sonnenstuhl. On the construction of drinking norms in work organizations. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 51(3): 201-220, 1990.

Book chapters

M. Golan, P. Bamberger, & Y. Bacharach. Peer Assistance Programs in the Workplace. In: Contemporary Occupational Health Psychology: Global Perspectives on Research and Practice, Vol. 1, 169-187, Aug 2010.

W. J. Sonnenstuhl. Help-seeking and helping processes within the workplace: Assisting alcoholic and other troubled employees. In P. M. Roman (ed.), Alcohol Problem Intervention in the Workplace: Employee Assistance Programs and Strategic Alternatives. Quorum Press: Greenwich, Conn., 1990.



S. Bacharach, P. Bamberger, & D. Vashdi. The effects of job control and situational severity on the timing of help-seeking. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 17 (2), 206-219, Apr 2012.

S. Bacharach, P. Bamberger, & E. Doveh. Firefighters, critical incidents and drinking to cope: The adequacy of unit-level performance resources as a source of vulnerability and protection. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(1), 155-169, Jan 2008.

S. Bacharach, P. Bamberger. 9-11 and NYC Firefighters' Post-hoc Unit Support and Control Climates: A Context Theory of the Consequences of Involvement in Traumatic Work-related Events. Academy of Management Journal, 2007.



M. Biron & P. Bamberger. Aversive workplace condition and absenteeism: Taking referent group norms and supervisor support into account. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97(4):901-12, Jul 2012. PMID: 22390387


S. Bacharach, P. Bamberger & M. Biron. Alcohol consumption and workplace absenteeism: The moderating effect of social support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(2):334-48, Mar 2010. PMID: 20230073



S. Bacharach, P. Bamberger, & V. McKinney. Harassing under the influence: Male drinking norms and behaviors and the gender harassment of female coworkers. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 12, 232-250, 2007.

S. Bacharach, & P. Bamberger. Abusive supervision and subordinate problem drinking: Resistance, distress and the moderating effect of personality. Human Relations, 59, 723-752, 2006.


S. Bacharach, P. Bamberger, & D. Vashdi. Diversity and homophily at work: Supportive relations among white and African-American Peers. Academy of Management Journal, 48, 4, 619-644, 2005.


S. Bacharach, & P. Bamberger. The power of labor to grieve: The impact of the workplace, labor market and power-dependece on employee grievance filing. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 57, 518-539, 2004.


S. Bacharach, & P. Bamberger. Diversity and the union: The effect of demographic dissimiliarity on members' union attachment. Group and Organization Management, 29, 385-518, 2002.


S. Bacharach, & P. Bamberger, & W. Sonnenstuhl. Driven to drink: Managerial control, work-related risk factors and employee drinking behavior. The Academy of Management Journal, 45, 4, 637-658, 2002.


S. Bacharach, & P. Bamberger, & V. McKinney. Boundary management tactics and logics of action: The case of peer support providers. Administrative Science Quarterly, 45, 4, 704-736, 2000.




P. Bamberger. Israeli Commercial Drivers and Alcohol Misuse: Impact, Prevalence, and Risk Factors (PDF, 951 KB)

M. Biron, P. Bamberger, & T. Noyman. Work-related risk factors and employee substance use: Insights from a sample of Israeli blue-collar workers. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 16, 2, 247-263, 2011.

P. Bamberger & L. Donahue. Employee discharge and reinstatement: Moral hazards and the mixed consequences of last chance agreements. Industrial and Labor Relations Review 53: 3-20, 1999.

S. Bacharach, P. Bamberger, & W. Sonnenstuhl. The organizational transformation process: Micro-politics of dissonance reduction and the alignment of logics of action. Administrative Science Quarterly 40(3): 487-506, 1996.