ILRReview citation guide for authors

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In-text citations

When citing an author, use last name with year enclosed in parentheses; separate multiple authors with a semicolon; for published articles with several names, write out all names in the first instance and then use et al. thereafter.

When quoting text of 40 or more words, use the block paragraph style. Do not indent the paragraph nor use quotation marks. Simply set off the block by adding an extra space above and below the text block. Add the reference after the last period.

In a study dealing with both privatization and reverse privatization, Hefetz and Warner (2004) found that union opposition to privatization decreased the level of new contracting out and increased the level of new contracting back in, but these effects were significant only in the 1992 survey data.

Quits are equated with dysfunctional turnover (Jacofsky 1984; Sturman, Trevor, Boudreau, and Gerhart 2003).

(When author has already been referenced within the same paragraph)
Shaw and colleagues noted, "In an organization with high quit rates, for various reasons employees find it more attractive to leave than to stay. In an organization with high discharge rates, however, presumably incorrect hiring decisions are remedied through termination" (Ibid.: 512).

Although several studies have examined why some firms adopt "flexible work practices" while other firms have not (Osterman 1994; Ichniowski et al. 1995; Gittleman et al. 1998; Gale et al. 2002), some of these have not tested existing theories regarding how multi-tasking would affect productivity.

References Page

Alphabetize by last name of the sole/first author, editor, corporate author (e.g., U.S. Census Bureau), or periodical (e.g., New York Times) if there is no human author/editor. For works authored by the same person, put in order of earliest date of publication, date first, and differentiate entries by adding a, b, and c, etc. after the year (e.g., 1999a; 1999b). Repeat the author's name after each entry. Use full first and last name for each entry.

Books

Include the full first and last name(s) of author(s), book title [title case and italicized], city of publication, and publisher.

Barreto, Manuela, Michelle Ryan, and Michael Schmitt. 2009. The Glass Ceiling in the 21st Century: Understanding Barriers to Gender Equality. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Chapter in Book/Edited Collection

Include the full name(s) of the author(s); chapter title (do not enclose titles in quotation marks); use sentence case; do italicize and put book titles in title case. Include the full first and last name(s) of editor(s), name of publication in which the chapter appears, volume or edition number (if applicable), page range, city where published, and publisher name.

Strober, Myra H., and Jay M. Jackman. 1994. Some effects of occupational segregation and the glass ceiling on women and men in technical and managerial fields: Retention of senior women. In Gunilla Bradley and Hal W. Hendrick (Eds.), Human Factors in Organizational Design and Management, Vol. IV, pp. 593-98. New Holland and Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Periodicals

Include the full name(s) of the author(s); article title; name of publication in which the article appears; both volume and issue number (whenever applicable); and page range. Do not enclose article titles in quotation marks; use sentence case for the article title; do italicize and put periodical titles in title case.

Eide, Eric. 1994. College major and changes in the gender wage gap. Contemporary Economic Policy, 12(2): 55-64.

Katz, Lawrence F., and Krueger, Alan B. 1999. The high-pressure U.S. labor market in the 1990s. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 1: 1-87.

Weiss, Yoram, and Reuben Gronau. 1981. Expected interruptions in labour force participation and sex-related differences in earnings growth. Review of Economic Studies, 48(4): 607-19.

Online Periodicals with Web Access

Include the full name(s) of the author(s); article title; name of publication in which the article appears; both volume and issue number (whenever applicable); and page range. Do not enclose article titles in quotation marks; use sentence case; do italicize and put periodical titles in title case. Add name of website and URL.

Upall, Sharanjit. 2010. Unionization 2010. Perspectives on Labour and Income, 11(10): 18-27. Statistics Canada. Accessed at http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/75-001-x/2010110/article/11358-eng.htm.

Unpublished Works

These include working papers, papers presented at conferences, and unpublished dissertations and theses. Include the full name of the author(s), the title, type of work, place at which the work was presented, and if relevant, month. Do not italicize titles of unpublished works.

Khitatrakun, Surachaikhit. 2003. Saving, wealth, and retirement: Evidence from the health and retirement survey. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Nadler, Carl, and Wiswall, Matthew. 2009. Risk aversion and support for merit pay: Theory and evidence from Minnesota's Q comp program. Working paper no. 09-05. Institute for Education and Social Policy, New York University. Accessed at http://steinhardt.nyu.edu/iesp/featured/6.

Borghans, Lex, Bas ter Weel, and Bruce Weinberg. 2006. People people: Social capital and the labor market outcomes of underrepresented groups. NBER Working paper no. 11985. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Blinder, Alan S. 2005. Fear of offshoring. CEPS Working Paper No. 119. December.

Webpage/Website

Include the full name(s) of the author(s), the web page, and the URL.

Bowman, Doug. 2009. Why designer Doug Bowman quit Google. Accessed at http://stopdesign.com/archive/2009/03/20/goodbye-google.html.

Kantrowitz, Mark. 2006. The smartstudent guide to financial aid: Retirement plans. Accessed at http://www.finaid.org/savings/retirementplans.phtml.

Government Documents

Include full first and last name(s) of author(s), type of document, database, where it is housed, and the url.

Ruggles, Steven, Matthew Sobek, Trent Alexander, Catherine Fitch, Ronald Goeken, Patricia Kelly Hall, Miriam King, and Chad Ronnander. 2004. Integrated public use microdata series: Version 3.0 [Machine-readable database]. Minneapolis, MN: Minnesota Population Center [producer and distributor]. Accessed at http://www.ipums.org.

CONSAD Research Corporation. 2009. An analysis of the reasons for the disparity in wages between men and women. Prepared for the U.S. Department of Labor, Employment Standards Administration. Contract Number GS-23F-02598.

U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division. 2000. Table 7: Educational attainment of employed civilians 18 to 64 years, by industry. Accessed at http://www.census.gov/population/socdemo/education/p2-536/tab07.pdf

Electronic documents

Include full first and last name(s) of author(s), if known; the full title of the document; the full title of the work of which it is part; the FTP, http, or other address; and the date the document was accessed.